Follow Larry with every step of his reproduction of the large Grossman celt. Larry wishes to thank the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, and Dr. Tim Pauketat for this slide of the Grossman cache. This large cache of 70 Lohman Phase celts was discovered on Friday the, 13th of July, 2001, in Shiloh, Illinois. The largest celt in the cache is about 18 inches long. It is the celt Larry will try to replicate. Check in every now and then to see Larry's progress.

Note; Since the spall is so heavy, Larry had to weigh it in pounds. Other aspects of the replication will be metric weights.

  (PhotoLK)  This is the piece of Wayne Co. Mo. basalt Larry is using. At 34.8 lbs (23 1/4 " -(59cm.) long X 12 1/4 " -(31cm.) wide),  he'll be removing about 10 lbs of material to replicate the Grossman celt. The boulder looked like this before Larry removed the frost-fractured spall and like this after the spall was removed. It's placed next to the boulder. Note the rock hammer for scale.

  This is the quartzite hammerstone Larry used to knap the first stage of the celt. Larry removed as much as he dare being careful not to end-snap the spall. He had to hit very hard with the quartzite hammerstone and had a hard time making any kind of platform. The basalt broke in a perpendicular fashion making platforms that were too steep for good hammer work. This is the spall after 9 min. - 7 sec. of hammerstone work.  It's now at 32.1 lbs, 21 5/8" -(55cm.) long X 9" - (23cm.) wide). Here's the debitage from the hammerstone stage of the celt (9/Jan/04).

This is the first chert hammer Larry will use for the pecking process.  It's a piece of raw Crescent Quarry Burlington. Now, it's all just muscles and sweat.

Here, Larry works on the celt bit with the chert hammer.  You can see his stop watch on the bucket next to him. Larry will use the stop watch and clock himself in or out when he gets a phone call, needs a bathroom break, or just needs to rest. He has a clipboard to his left where the exact times are recorded so he knows exactly how long tasks take. Also notice the debitage at Larry's feet. In the early stages using the chert hammer, many chert flakes spall off turning the chert into a ball, eventually. Although lots of chert is wasted the resharpened protrusions on the chert ball aid in the pecking process.

This is after 2hrs.-4min.-53 sec. of pecking.    The celt is starting to take shape. Notice that we're at 30.6 lbs. on the celt. (the weight in this photo is incorrect)  Also note the debitage at this early stage. There's lots of chert debitage from the hammer flaking off. This resharpens the hammer and allows for easier removal of the basalt. In our area chert is abundant, therefore, this loss is acceptable. In other flint "poor" areas other strategies may apply.

The measurements at this point are 21-1/4"(54cm.) by 8-5/8"(22cm.)

Add the 9 min.-7secs. of hammer work to the 2hrs.-4min.-53sec. of chert pecking and you come up with a grand total of  2hrs.-14min. at this point (16/Jan/04).

This is the debitage at the 2hr.-14min. point(410.7 grams).  (the weight in this photo is incorrect)  Note the large amount of chert flakes. This is typical of the early stages which deteriorate the chert until it shapes to a ball.      Here's a chert hammer from an archaeological site near Larry's home. The site is now a golf course. Compare this hammer with the one Larry is using.