Follow Larry with every step of his
reproduction of the large Grossman celt.
Larry wishes to thank the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, and Dr.
Tim Pauketat for this slide of the Grossman cache. This large cache of 70
Lohman Phase celts was discovered on Friday the, 13th of July, 2001, in
Shiloh, Illinois. The largest celt in the cache is about 18 inches long. It is
the celt Larry will try to replicate. Check in every now and then to see
Note; Since the spall is so heavy,
Larry had to weigh it in pounds. Other aspects of the replication will be metric
(PhotoLK) This is the
piece of Wayne Co. Mo. basalt Larry is using. At 34.8 lbs
(23 1/4 " -(59cm.) long X 12 1/4 "
-(31cm.) wide), he'll be removing
about 10 lbs of material to replicate the Grossman celt. The boulder looked like
Larry removed the frost-fractured spall and like this
the spall was removed. It's placed next to the boulder. Note the rock hammer
This is the quartzite hammerstone Larry used to knap the first stage of
the celt. Larry removed as much as he dare being careful not to end-snap the
spall. He had to hit very hard with the quartzite hammerstone and had a hard
time making any kind of platform. The basalt broke in a perpendicular fashion
making platforms that were too steep for good hammer work. This is the spall
9 min. - 7
of hammerstone work.
at 32.1 lbs,
21 5/8" -(55cm.) long X 9" - (23cm.) wide).
Here's the debitage
from the hammerstone stage of the celt (9/Jan/04).
This is the
first chert hammer Larry will use for the pecking process.
It's a piece of raw Crescent Quarry Burlington. Now, it's all just muscles and
Here, Larry works
on the celt bit with the chert hammer.
You can see his stop watch on the bucket next to him. Larry will use the stop
watch and clock himself in or out when he gets a phone call, needs a bathroom
break, or just needs to rest. He has a clipboard to his left where the exact
times are recorded so he knows exactly how long tasks take. Also notice the debitage at Larry's feet. In the early stages using the chert hammer, many chert
flakes spall off turning the chert into a ball, eventually. Although lots of
chert is wasted the resharpened protrusions on the chert ball aid in the pecking
This is after
2hrs.-4min.-53 sec. of pecking.
The celt is starting to take shape. Notice that we're at 30.6 lbs. on the celt.
weight in this photo is incorrect)
Also note the debitage at this early stage. There's lots of chert debitage from
the hammer flaking off. This resharpens the hammer and allows for easier removal
of the basalt. In our area chert is abundant, therefore, this loss is
acceptable. In other flint "poor" areas other strategies may apply.
The measurements at
this point are 21-1/4"(54cm.) by 8-5/8"(22cm.)
Add the 9 min.-7secs.
of hammer work to the 2hrs.-4min.-53sec. of chert pecking and you come up with a
grand total of
at this point
This is the
debitage at the 2hr.-14min. point(410.7 grams).
weight in this photo is incorrect) Note the
large amount of chert flakes. This is typical of the early stages which
deteriorate the chert until it shapes to a ball.
Here's a chert hammer from an archaeological site near Larry's home. The site is
now a golf course. Compare this hammer with the one Larry is using.